Charaka Shareera Sthana seventh Chapter Shareera Sankhya Shareeram


seventh chapter of Charaka Shareera sthana offers with “the enumeration of the organs as conducive to the understanding of the human physique”. The chapter identify is Shareera Sankhya Shaareeram.

We will now discover the chapter on “the enumeration of the organs as conducive to the understanding of the human physique”. Thus mentioned Lord Atreya [1-2]
Learn – Shareera: Formation Of Human Physique, Ayurvedic Idea

Question about organs of physique

With a view to determine the quantity and measurement of the whole physique by classifying the physique in accordance with its element organs, Agnivesha requested Lord Atreya to enumerate the organs of the physique. [3]

Six layers of pores and skin

Lord Atreya replied, “Take heed to meattentively O! Agnivesha! I shall describe the whole physique in acceptable method as per your questions”

There are six layers of pores and skin as follows:
First one is the exterior layer which is named Udaka-Dhara (containing / made up of watery substance of Lymph).
The second layer is Asrgdara (containing blood, capillaries)
The third layer is the positioning for the manifestation of Sidhma (a sort of determatosis) and Kilasa (Leucoderma)
The fourth layer is the positioning for the manifestation of Dadru (ring-worm) and Kustha (obstinate pores and skin illnesses together with leprosy)
The fifth Layer is the positioning for the manifestation of Alaji (boil) and Vidradhi (abscess).
The sixth layer is that by the excision of which the person will get trembling and enters into darkness (will get fainting) like a blind man. On this layer the boils manifest within the joints that are blackish purple in color and are deep rooted. Such boils are extraordinarily troublesome of therapy. These are the six layers of the pores and skin by which the whole physique together with its six organs (components) stay coated. [4]
Learn – Indicators Of Good Pores and skin Well being (Twak Sara Purusha Lakshanas)

Elements of the physique

The physique is split into six components, viz. Two higher limbs, head together with neck and the trunk. (These are the six components of the physique). [5]

Variety of bones

Together with enamel, sockets of enamel and nails, bones within the physique are 360 in quantity. They’re as follows:

Tooth- 32
Sockets of teeth- 32
Nails – 20
Phalangeal bones of palms and feet- 60
Meta phalangeal bones of palms and feet- 20
Six bones which from the bottom to assist the meta phalangeal bones of palms & feet- 4
Parshni (bones of heels or calcaneus)-2
Gulpha (ankle bones) – 4
Mani (wrist bones) – 2
Aratni (bones of forearms) – 4
 Jangha (bones of legs) – 4
Janu (bones of knees) – 2
 Janu Kapala (knee caps) -2
Hole bones of thighs (femurs)-2
Hole bones of arms (humerus) – 2
Amsa (bones of the Shoulder)-2
Amsaphalaka (shoulder blades) – 2
Aksaka (clavicles) – 2
Jatru (wind pipe) – 2
Talu (palated bones) – 2
Bhagasthi (public bone) – 2
Bhagasthi (public bone) – 1
Bones of the again – 45
Bone of the neck – 15
Bone of chest – 14
Bones of the edges (ribs) – 24
Sockets (for ribs) – 24
Tubercles within the sockets (for ribs) – 24
Hanvasthi or Jawbone (decrease) – 1
Hanumula Bandhana (bones which hold the decrease jaw locked up) -2
Bone constituting of cheeks and brow – 1
Sankha (temporal bones) -2
Sirah kapala (pan formed bones of the pinnacle) – 4
Thus the 360 bones together with enamel, sockets of bones and nails are accounted for. [6]
Learn – Asthi Shareera – Definition, Anatomy, Sorts Of Bones

Sensory and motor organs

There are 5 organs of senses i.e.

  • Pores and skin
  • Tongue
  • Nostril
  • Two eyes and
  • Two ears

These are 5 sense colleges i.e.

  • Tactile
  • Gustatory
  • Olfactory
  • Visible and
  • Auditory

There are 5 motor organs i.e.

  • Two palms
  • Two toes
  • Anus
  • Intercourse organs and
  • Tongue

The location of consciousness is just one, i.e. the guts. [7-8]

Resorts of life

There are ten resorts of life, viz,

  • Head
  • Throat
  • Coronary heart
  • Umbilicus
  • Anus
  • Bladder
  • Ojas
  • Semen
  • Blood and
  • Flesh

Of them the primary six organs are often called Marma (very important organs) [9]
Learn – Involvement Of Doshas In Formation Of Organs

Visceras

Kosthangas (viscera within the thorax and stomach) are fifteen in quantity. They’re

  • Nabhi (umbilicus)
  • Hrdaya (coronary heart)
  • Kloman (lungs)
  • Yakrt (liver)
  • Pliha (spleen)
  • Vrkkau (two kidneys)
  • Basti (urinary bladder)
  • Purisadhara (pelvic colon)
  • Amashaya (abdomen)
  • Pakvashaya (colon)
  • Uttaraguda (rectum)
  • Adharaguda (anus)
  • Ksudrantra (small gut)
  • Sthulantra (giant gut) and
  • Vapavahana (omentum). [10]

Learn – Pratyangas: The minor organs, Definition, Quantity

Pratyangas or sub-parts of physique

Within the six Angas (components of the physique) there are about 56 Pratyngas (sub-parts). They weren’t described earlier than whereas enumerating the six components of the physique. They’re enumerated under following a distinct mode of classification:

  • Janghapindika (calves) – 2
  • Urupindika (muscular portion of the thigh) – 2
  • Sphik (buttocks) – 2
  • Vrsana (testicles) – 2
  • Sepha (phallus) – 1
  • Ukha (Elevations bordering axillae) – 2
  • Vanksana (groins) – 2
  • Kukundara (hips) – 2
  • Vastisirsa (pelvis) – 1
  • Udara- (stomach) – 1
  • Stana (breasts) – 2
  • Slesmabhu (tonsils) – 2
  • Bahupidika (muscular portion of arms – 2)
  • Cibuka (chin) – 1
  • Ostha(lips) – 2
  • Srkkani (angles of the mouth – 2)
  • Dantavestaka (gums) – 2
  • Talu (Palate) – 1
  • Galasundika (uvula) – 1
  • Upajihvika (ear holes) – 2
  • Gojhva (tongue or the organs of the ear) – 2
  • Ganda (cheeks) – 2
  • Karnasaskulika (ear holes) – 2
  • Karnaputraka (exterior portion of the ear) – 2
  • Aksikuta (orbit of eye) – 2
  • Aksivartma (eye bids) – 4
  • Aksikaninuka (medial angles of the eyes close to the nostril) – 2
  • Bhru (eye brows) – 2
  • Avatu (thyroid) – 1
  • Panipadahrdaya (soles of palms and toes) – 4 [11]

Main orifices

There are 9 main orifices – seven within the head and two under:
The above are the seen elements and are able to description. [12-13]
Learn – Srotas: Physique Channels and Duct methods – Straightforward Rationalization

Enumeration of different organs

Past what’s described above may be ascertained from inference solely.  They’re enumerated under:

  • Snayu (sinew / ligaments) – 900
  • Sira (veins) – 700
  • Dhamani (arteries) – 200Muscles – 400
  • Marma (very important components within the physique) – 107
  • Joints – 200
  • Terminals of the advantageous ramifications of the veins and arteries- 29956
  • Kesha(hair), Smashru (beard and moustaches) and loma (small hair) – 2994

Tvak (pores and skin) and so on., enumerated above are correctly seen and the variety of the remaining may be ascertained by inference solely. Each these classes don’t endure any variation through the regular state of the person’s physique. [14]

Measurement of liquid constituents of physique

Substance of the physique which may be measured by quantity taking Anjali (house created by becoming a member of each the palms within the type of a cup) as a unit are actually being described. The measurement described right here pertains to the best commonplace. These substances can endure variation within the type of improve or lower in a traditional particular person and this may be ascertained by inference.
Learn – Anjali Pramana: Quantity Measurement As Per Ayurveda

Measurement of those substances are given under:

Sl No Substances Measurement when it comes to Anjali of the person whose substances are being measured
1 Udaka (watery portion / aqueous factor) a substance which is seen combined with faeces through the prevalence of diarrhoea; it’s also present in affiliation with urine, blood, and different tissue parts of the physique. It’s unfold all around the physique with its web site within the exterior pores and skin. Contained in the pores and skin, it is named Lasika (lymph) which exudes by way of ulcers. When the physique turns into sizzling, it comes out from hair follicles within the type of sweat. 10
2 Rasa which is the primary product of the ingested meals after it’s metabolised 9
3 Blood 8
4 Faeces 7
5 Kapha 6
6 Pitta 5
7 Urine 4
8 Vasa (muscle fats) 3
9 Medas (fats) 2
10 Majja (bone-marrow) 1
11 Mastiska (the fats) like substance contained in the cranium) 1/2
12 Shukra (semen) ½
13 Shlaismika sort of Ojas 1/2

Thus the assorted elements within the physique are described. [15]

Mahabhautic predominance in numerous constituents

These organs are dominated by one or different of the Mahabhutas. Their particular traits are given under:

Sl No Mahabhautika  predominance   Respective organs with their particular traits
1 Parthiva  (dominated by Prthvi Mahabhuta – earth factor) 1 Organs that are gross, secure, having varieties, heavy, tough and exhausting like nail, bone, enamel, flesh, pores and skin, faeces, hair, smasru (moustache)
    2 Scent (of the physique) and
    3 Olfactory school
2 Apya (dominated by Jala Mahabhuta – water factor) 1 Components within the physique that are liquid, cell, gradual, unctuous, comfortable and slimy like Rasa (Plasma), Rudira (blood), Vasa (muscle fats), Kapha, pitta, urine and sweat
    3 Gustatory school
3 Agneya (dominated by Agnimahabhuta – fireplace factor) 1 All elements like pitta, temperature and lustre of the physique
    2 Colors (of various elements within the physique) and
    3 Visible school
4 Vayaviya (dominated by Vayu mahabhuta – air / wind factor) 1 Bodily phenomena like inhalation, exhalation, opening and shutting of eyes, contraction, impelling and retention
    2 Components of the physique that are identified by contact and
    3 Tactile school
5 Antariksha (dominated by Akasha mahabhuta – ether factor) 1 Components of the character of void, talking (voice), gross and delicate channels
    2 Sounds (excluding speech) emanating from completely different organs of the  physique and
    3 Auditory school

The soul, the mind and the thoughts whereas stimulating the assorted sense organs in direction of their objects are dominated by the qualities of the respective sense organs. Thus the physique divided into numerous gross organs is merited. [16]

Learn – Panchamahabhuta: Software, Areas of Utility in Ayurveda therapy

Innumerability of organs of physique

Paramanus are the minute cells / models of the physique they usually can’t be counted as a result of (1) they’re past sensory notion. These Paramanus make up the organs of the physique. Based mostly on the innumerability of the paramanus, the variety of organs of the physique can be thought-about as innumerable. Vayu, the particular nature of the outcomes of the previous motion and the fundamental nature related to these Paramanus are liable for their union and disjunction. [17]

Data of organs of the body- salvation

When this physique composed of varied components is perceived as one unit, this results in attachment; when the assorted composing elements are seen as separate from one another, this results in salvation. Of the assorted components, the Soul is unattached. When He dissociates Himself from all (beneficial and unfavourable) manifestations, there’s salvation (from the worldly affairs). [18]
Learn – Significance Of Soul In Notion Of Data: Atma Jnana

The doctor, who is aware of the variety of numerous elements of the physique of their entirety, doesn’t affiliate himself with phantasm which is brought on by ignorance. Due to the absence of phantasm he doesn’t get troubled with the faults (of such phantasm) and being free from faults, he turns into unattached and peaceable which ends up in the prevention of his rebirth. [19-20]

Thus ends the seventh chapter of Sharira Part on “The Enumeration of Organs as conducive to the understanding of the human physique” of Agnivesha’s work as redacted by Charaka [7]

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